The main ingredient of bread is flour which is made from wheat grain.
Wheat is usually ground into flour.
The flour is made by milling the wheat grain.
The Milling Process
- Blending – Different varieties of wheat grain are mixed together.
- Cleaning – The wheat is cleaned to remove stones, dust, grit, metal and any other objects.
- Conditioning – Water is added to soften the bran and make it easier to process.
- Breaking – The wheat passes through rollers rotating at different speeds which break or crack open the grain.
- Sieving – A series of sieves separate the grain into three parts – endosperm, bran and the germ.
- Rolling – The bran is removed by further rolling.
- Rolling – The endosperm passes through more sieves and rollers, getting finer and finer all the time.
- Sieving – The germ as a powder.
The Wheat Grain
The wheat grain is made up of three parts.
- Endosperm – The starchy centre and the largest part of the grain which contains vitamins, protein and starch.
- Bran – The tough outer skin of the grain which contains vitamins, minerals such as calcium, phosphorus and iron, protein and fibre.
- Germ – The seed of the grain which contains B and E vitamins, fat, iron and protein.
White flour is made by removing the germ and bran so only the white endosperm is left. 75% of the grain is used to make this flour.
Brown flour is made by removing some of the germ and bran. 85% of the grain is used to make this flour.
Wholegrain / Wholemeal Flour
Wholemeal flour is made when all of the grain is used. 100% of the grain is used to make this flour. It is light brown in colour because it contains the germ and the bran. This flour is healthier for us because it contains more fibre.