Glossary

Arable Crops Definitions

  • Arable Farming – The production of crops.
  • Barley – A cereal crop grown mainly for malting and as an animal feed.
  • Biodiesel – Fuel that has been produced using crops.
  • Blight – A potato disease.
  • Buteric Silage – Silage that is too wet and does not ferment properly.
  • Canola – The American name for oilseed rape, an arable crop grown for the extraction of oil from the seeds.
  • Chlorophyll – The green pigment in leaves.
  • Chloroplasts – The leaf cells in plants.
  • CO2 – The chemical formula for Carbon Dioxide.
  • Dehusked – To remove the outer layer on grain.
  • H2O – The chemical formula for Water.
  • Hay – A mature grass that has been cut and allowed to dry in the field.
  • O2 – The chemical formula for Oxygen.
  • Oats – A cereal crop grown for animal feed and for cereal foods for human consumption.
  • Oilseed Rape – An arable crop, also known as canola, grown for the extraction of oil from the seeds.
  • Photosynthesis – The food making process of a plant which takes place in the leaf.
  • Potato Cyst Nematode – A soil borne pest that affects the potato crop.
  • Potatoes – An arable crop and root vegetable grown for human consumption.
  • Silage – Grass that has been preserved by pickling rather than drying.
  • Wheat – A cereal crop grown for animal feed and for the production of flour.
  • Cat Definitions

  • Carnivore – An animal that eats other animals.
  • Cat – A small carnivorous mammal.
  • Deworm – To treat a cat to remove and prevent worms.
  • Feline – A cat or another animal in the cat family.
  • Grooming – To comb and clean the fur a cat.
  • Kitten – A young cat.
  • Litter Box or Litter Tray – A box or tray where cats are trained to go to the toilet.
  • Neutered – The removal of the sexual organs from a cat.
  • Tomcat – A male cat.
  • Vaccinate – To be given injections or tablets to provide immunity to certain diseases.
  • Weaning – To start feeding a cat food other than it’s mother’s milk.
  • Cattle Definitions

  • Bull – An uncastrated male animal of the cattle family.
  • Bulling – The behaviour of a cow when she is ready to mate with the bull.
  • Bullock – A castrated male animal of the cattle family.
  • Calf – An offspring of the cattle family.
  • Cow – An older female animal of the cattle family.
  • Crush – A device to hold and contain an animal for veterinary work.
  • Dung – Cattle manure which is used to fertilise the land.
  • Fodder – Food for cattle and other livestock.
  • Fold / Folding – A pen or enclosure for livestock usually on a piece of land where fodder crops have been grown.
  • Graze / Grazing – Animals eating grass in a field.
  • Heifer – A female cow that has not had a calf.
  • Manure – Cattle dung which is used to fertilise the land.
  • Trough – A long and narrow container for animals to eat and drink out of.
  • Pig Definitions

  • Abattoir – A slaughterhouse.
  • AI – Artificial Insemination, when gilts and sows are impregnated artificially.
  • Animal Movement Licence – Pigs can only be moved with an animal movement licence.
  • Barrow – A male pig castrated at a young age.
  • Boar – An adult male pig that can be used for breeding purposes.
  • Boar Taint – This is a strong smell and taste on the meat from a boar over the age of seven months that has not been castrated.
  • BPA – British Pig Association.
  • Brimming – This is when a female pig comes into season and is ready to accept the boar.
  • Chitterlings – The small intestines of a pig.
  • Colostrum – The first milk after farrowing from the sow. This milk has some of the natural immunities of the mother which are passed onto the piglets.
  • Creep – An area where piglets can feed away from the sow.
  • Creep Feed – Food that is given to the piglets from two to three weeks onwards which is high in sugar and milk proteins that is given as a supplement to the mother’s milk.
  • Cross Breeding – The mating of pigs from different breeds.
  • Drove – A herd or group of pigs.
  • Estrus – The period of time when the female pig will accept the male pig for reproduction.
  • Farrow – When a gilt or sow gives birth to piglets.
  • Farrowing – Giving birth to piglets.
  • Farrowing Crate -A pen made of metal and wood that confines the sow or gilt so that they do not lay on their piglets. The crate restricts the pigs movement thus protecting the piglets once they are born.
  • Gestation Period – The length of the pregnancy, which is approximately 3 months, 3 weeks and 3 days for a pig or approximately 114 days.
  • Gilt – A young female pig that has not yet had piglets.
  • Hog – Another term for a pig.
  • Hurdle – A solid gate used when handling or moving pigs.
  • In-Pig – When a gilt or sow is pregnant.
  • Lard – Rendered pig fat.
  • Litter – The offspring of a single farrowing.
  • Meal – Feed.
  • Navel Cord – The cord which attached the unborn piglet to the uterus.
  • Needle Teeth – Two large teeth on each side of the upper jaw.
  • Overlay – Overlay is when the sow or gilt lays on the piglets and crushes them to death.
  • Piglet – A young pig.
  • Ring – A metal ring that is placed in the tip of a pigs nose to keep the pig from rooting.
  • Runt – The smallest piglet in the litter.
  • Scour – Diarrhoea.
  • Service – When the female pig is mounted by the boar.
  • Slap Mark – A form of identification where the pig has been tatooed with an identification number.
  • Sow – An adult female pig which has had piglets.
  • Stag – A boar that is castrated after maturity.
  • Swine – A term used to describe all pigs.
  • Teats – A female pig has teats which are on the underpart of their body and allow the piglets to take milk from the female pig.
  • Weaner – A pig that is strong enough to have been removed from the sow which occurs from 6 weeks of age.
  • Vulva – The external part of the female pig’s reproductive organs.
  • Poultry Definitions

  • Bantam – A small, miniature chicken known as a Bantie / Banty.
  • Breed – A group of birds having distinctive features in common.
  • Broiler – A young chicken raised for it’s meat which is usually 9 – 12 weeks of age.
  • Brooder – An enclosed area with a heat lamp for raising young chicks.
  • Clutch – A set of eggs laid in a nest by one or more hens.
  • Cockerel – A male chicken under one year of age.
  • Coccidiosis – A disease which can kill chicks.
  • Casque – The helmet on a guinea fowl’s head.
  • Guinea Cock – An adult male guinea fowl one year or older.
  • Guinea Hen – An adult female guinea fowl one year or older.
  • Hen – A female chicken one year or older.
  • Keet – A baby guinea fowl of either gender aged from birth to 12 weeks old.
  • Layers – Mature female chickens kept for egg production.
  • Litter -The bedding used in the hut or run, such as straw.
  • Mites – Very tiny parasites that live on chickens.
  • Nest Egg – A natural or artificial egg placed in the nest to encourage the hen to lay her eggs in the nest.
  • Pipped Egg – A pipped egg is one that has been cracked by the chick at hatching time.
  • Poultry – Domestic birds raised for meat or eggs.
  • Pullet – A female chicken under one year of age.
  • Shanks – The legs on a bird.
  • Wattles – The fleshy red cheek appendages that hang under the bird’s beak.